Pamela Mon Cheri,
Regarding your inquiry about the Identity of Pharamond…modern researchers, as indeed the researchers of the late middle ages, continue to be puzzled by the identity of Pharamond, King of the Franks. We many never known with certainty the identity of this individual who may end up being just another unidentified allele in modern DNA testing. However, I hope that future findings may allow us to identify with certainty the genetic links of the Frankish people and if Pharamond proves to be a false insertion to legitimize the Frankish Dynasty I would hope that those future findings will allow us to put him in his proper place. Meantime, the researchers with whom I am associated have issued the following statement.
After researching carefully it is my belief that Pharamond did exist however his attachment to the Merovingian house as the supposed parent ancestor of the Merovingian kings is not correct. It is believed by me and some of the researchers with whom I work that the grafting of Pharamond onto the Frankish tree represents a legitimization of the Frankish kings in the face of a failing empire. The sources to identify Pharamond as a Frank are very sparse, circumstantial, and greatly mythologized. The main source is Marcellus Ammianus who wrote mainly about the Romano/Person conflict in Albania and its effect on the migrating populations of the 3rd century (Alans, Heathobard, Suevians, and various tribes of Franks). – Project DFA
The region of Varangia (Dacio/Geatland) near and around the Black sea seems to have been the origin, or at least the prolonged interim settlement, of the Frankish people prior to their migration to the north west (toward Germania). The migration happened in stages with the Frankish peoples being subdivided into various sub-tribes or clans. Prior to the migration various of these groups came under subjugation of alternately the Roman or Persian empire as political events shifted. Ammianus Marcelinus recorded the events of this conflict as the unfolded in Germania at a time when Rome was in the process of regaining some of its former territories, that had been previously lost to the Persian Empire. Some of the participants in the events mentioned by Ammianus such as Pharamond, an earlier Merovek, Nannianus, Tonantius Ferreolus , and possibly even Clodius I represent an Eastern European faction vs a West European faction. These people familiar to western sources as early political leaders of the Franks can also be found mentioned in the histories of the local dynasties and satrapies of Persia as they transitioned to Roman rule.
While there is no good reference for a Frankish king named Pharamond, there are some reliable Byzantine references to a Paranzemund, who was a Roman Foederatus and deposed prince of Eastern Albania whose family relations, life and exploits mesh perfectly with the known details of Pharamond as a leader of a Frankish people during their migratory phase. If, as I believe, these individuals represent local Generals, deposed Satraps, and Regional Governors or Dux Romani who later became Rex Populi, then the large distance traveled would not have been an issue since it is historically proven that both the Persian and Roman Military machine had great mobility in the provences from east to west, north to south, during this era of the Empire.
According to the eastern references, Paranzemund was the son of Valinak Syak [Sunno the Frank], and was a deposed Tocharian Prince and uncle of young King Papes of Armenia [brother to Pape's mother Parandzem] who was stationed by Theodoric to guard the “Northern Islands” [Thule/Orcades]. As a young man in 360 CE, he was a veteran of the Olympic games in (Olibrium) where he won as a pugilist (boxer). Parandzem and Paranzemund were both members of the Parthian house of Mihra/Mervan.
I, and the other researchers at Project DFA, recommend expanding the search for Pharamond and his family (antecedents and immediate posterity) to include records kept by the Persian Empire and Eastern Roman sources.
Lilith is getting upset at being left off the human “Out of Africa” genotree.
All male lineages can be traced to a supposed “Adam and Eve” that once lived in South East Africa. That is to say all Human DNA can be traced back to two single individuals with origins in Africa that has been dubbed by scientists as “Adam” and “Eve“. However, Female or mDNA is substantially older than Adam’s. Meaning it is possible for traces of Mother’s DNA to be traced back farther than Father’s. yDNA mutates at a faster rate, goes extinct or disappears at a faster rate; dying at the root rather than at the branches, so to speak, which renders various groups of humans more and more genetically distinct.
With that in mind we come back to the plight of Lillith. I refer to her as Lillith drawing upon the Ancient mythologies of the Middle East which tell of a mysterious “first wife” of Adam…. There is solid evidence that humans have evolved from two diverse groups. They were probably once a single group, however any genetic evidence that they evolved from a single group is now irretrievably lost to genetic drift. The dispersian pattern of the descendants of the two groups demonstrate widely diverse origins. The first group of humans (Adam and Eve) can be confirmed to have originated “Out of Africa.” However, Lillith’s group [The X factor] appears to have had an Atlantic origin. And although some scientists labor intensively to “prove” an African origin based on the established pattern of Adam and Eve, the pattern of inheritance makes it difficult for such a confirmation to emerge. The patterns of inheritance are too isolated. The dispersal pattern clearly shows haplotype X to have been a North Western Atlantic modal type.
Haplotype X1 appears to have originated prior to the great ice age in the North Western Atlantic. From its center of origin it dispersed relatively uniformly throughout both North America and Europe, and the Levant prior to the onset of the great Ice Age. Haplotype X2 appeared as a subtype either during the ice age and did not have time to disperse as with Haplotype X1.
Although scientists labor intensively to prove an “Out of Africa” origin… and even go so far as to suggest its origin in South East Asia (as a result of branching from Haplotype N); the ultimate origin remains a mystery with experts unable to arrive at a consensus. That Haplotype X2 appears in widely isolated pockets (North East America, and the Aegean/Black Sea Region) is likely the result of migration either overland (via river systems) or by ancient seafarers. Modern genetic studies show that a single haplotype with widely separated pockets only occurs as the result of population bottlenecks that occur as a result of migration or cataclysmic occurances and supports the pre-ice age theory of separation of a parent civilization into eastern and western groups by an ice age (20,000-10,000 years ago). X2 demonstrates a normal dispersal pattern in North American, however the isolated pocket of X2 in the Black Sea region could only have originated as the result of a population bottleneck caused by post glacial migratory relocation by an isolated genetically distinct group of people. Today the Haplotype X can be found primarily in the Altaic Mountains around Bashkus and Chulca, among the Druze, and among the North American Nuuchahnulth
Scientific logic then would lead us to conclude that both X1 and X2 originated prior to the Ice Age but that haplotype X2 was divided as a result of ecological or cataclysmic events during of immediately following the ice age (8,000-4,000 BC).
In order to identify the tribes and people whose heritage displays the mysterious X factor. We need to first identify those associated with this inheritance and then analyze their histories and mythologies for clues with regard to their common origins. The ancient peoples with their roots in Northern Africa, the Fertile Crescent and the Black Sea were the Parthians, Greeks, Hittites, Assyrians, and Haburites. Among these tribes are those whose mDNA still carries the legacy of the X haplotype. Embedded in the mythologies and legends of these groups are the clues and distant racial memories of this event.
1) Zoroastrian accounts of pre-ice age civilization, the ice age which destroyed it and man’s retreat into an extensive cave system to survive the event.
2) Plato’s account of the naval power of Atlantis prior to its fall and the cataclysmic events which likely contributed to the onset of the ice age. (Extensive Vulcanism)
4) Ancient Greek myths regarding the Elysium Fields [Land of Light], man’s triumph over the elements (Gods vs Titans).
5) Gothic Legends of the War of Vesosis [Zeus] and Tanausis [Titans] which was a prediluvian battle that is often misidentified with the battle of Troy or other later battle.
6) Aztec myths (Originally a North American People): Life at Tamoanchan (the legendary origin of all civilizations); Worship of Atlatonan/Atlatonin) – goddess of the coast; Escape from martial law from Chicomostoc, “the place of the seven caves” [The first migration], The southward journey to Mexico [The second migration, 1035 CE]
8) Egyptian records of the Tainite Kings and the Bubastis Flood.
4) The biblical account of Noah
5) Assyrian account of Gilgamesh
7) The confirmation in written record of ancient Mesopotamian trade with the mysterious land of Dilmun/Telmun whose climate required the consumption of Mesopotamian wool. The location of this land is purely speculative at this time.
There are many many more myths globally which I could cite but the bibliography is lengthy and I only want to show that the racial memory of Lilith’s homeland as well as the events contributing to its demise and subsequent migrations there from are far from being regional isolates. Suffice it to say that the genealogical and legendary records both support the appearance of X2 in the two isolated regions as the result of population bottlenecks during or shortly following the ice-age. That both haplogroups appear on both continents is consistent with the theory of a wide-spread pre-ice age Northern Hemospheric (Atlantian) civilization followed by subsequent eastern and western migrations by isolated post glacial X2 groups following a series of floods and lakeburst “events”.
The English word tomato comes from derives from “tomatl,” its name in Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. The first printed reference to the Tomatl was in a Spanish tract in 1595. In the tract it is mentioned that Hernando Cortez discovered tomatoes growing in Montezuma‘s gardens and brought seeds back to Europe in 1519 where they were planted as ornamental curiosities, but not eaten. The early fruits were yellow, and became known as “manzanas” (apples) and “pomi d’oro” (apple of gold).
The history of the Tomato can be traced back to the early Aztecs around 700 A.D; and mention appears in the diary of an early Italian writer who called the tomato a “Poma Peruviana” (Peru being a generic name for Andean South America). Few primitive forms of tomato are found in Central America and Mexico compared with the number in South America, indicating a rather late adoption of the fruit by Central and Northwest Indians. The Spanish distributed the tomato through most of the Carribbean colonies, and are responsible for introducing it to Europe, the Philippines, and South East Asia.
The Spanish, Catalan, and Occitan people of the Piedmont (north-Western Italy) were the first to embrace and cultivate the tomato for practical reasons (as food) outside South America. The French called it the “love apple.” or Pomme d’Amour, and was prized for its stimulating aphrodisiac qualities. However it remained suspect among the Upper class outside these areas and was shunned by the British. The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. They were doubtless introduced by the Spanish settlers from the Caribbean, and Huguenot refugees who fled from the areas of Europe that were the early adopters of tomato use.
New England with its heavy English influence remained profoundly suspect of the fruit until at last in 1808, Jamaican raised Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson, proved once and for all that the tomato was not poisonous by performing a public demonstration of rather exhibitionist proportions on the steps of the Salem NJ Courthouse. Colonel Johnson, dressed in black and accompanied by the local Fireman’s band playing funeral dirges, bravely consumed an entire basket of tomatoes. His grandstanding attracted a crowd of people estimated at 2000 who were certain that the foolish Captain was committing public suicide. When this Victorian era Mythbuster failed to expire or suffer any ill effects, the myth was effectively busted. However, it is interesting that the tomato is still the first of “The Usual Suspects” in any incident of communal food poisoning.
So while it appears that this plant in indeed edible and may well have its origins in South America, the mystery remains that in the 2nd Century CE the Greek Physician Claudius Galen accurately describes this plant as being native to North Africa and the Canary Islands. Is it possible that the common Tomato may actually be proof of pre-Columbian commerce between North Africa and South America prior to 700 A.D?
According to the various traditions, the Picts descended from a colony of Milesians (a Minoan based Scytho-Thracian seafarering culture) led by Galamh of Miletus. Galamb and his men allegedly took wives from among the Dannan (Don River People) and Areyanum Veiya (Ahhiwaya) before exploring the lands beyond the Pillars of Hercules and ultimately settling in the Orkney Islands, Hebrides, and northern Scotland. The only reliable authority to offer this account is the Venerable Bede and he would have learned it from the Irish sources.
W J Watson [1926, pp 60-61] dismissed the legends as merely attempts at Irish embellishment of their history based on the mention of “Picti Agathyrsi” and “Picti Geloni” in the Aeneid of Virgil. Both Virgil and Herodotus trace the descent of these nations from the three sons of Heracles: Agathyrsus, Gelonus, and Scythes.
Herodotus, writing in 450 BC located the Agathyrsi on the Black Sea above the Danube, and the Geloni he sways were Greeks who settled in the territory of the Budini on the upper Dneiper. Both tribes were tributary to the Scythians.
The social organization of the Agathyrsi was complex in that they practiced group marriage. That is while each man had a single wife, all wives were held in common. For purposes of noting descent only the children of the man’s wife were counted as his own regardless of their actual parentage. However for purposes of tribal cohesion, all men in the tribe were deemed to be brothers of a single family. This organizational principle as noted by Herodotus was confirmed by Julius Caesar, Dio Cassius, Solinus and St Jerome.
This social custom and practice of matrilineal succession as practiced by the Agathyrsi, Barsarkar, Swydds, Picts, Amazijan Berbers and Miathi of Northern Wales was most certainly known among the Irish who made the connection and asserted their claims. Before we dismiss those claims closer examination of them is warranted. What more evidence is there that the groups were connected? Solinus notes in his writings that the red haired/blue eyed Agathyrsi dyed their hair blue and strode naked into Battle covered with the tattoos of their lineage and rank. The same is true of the Baltic Hero Aganthyr who was called the Barsarkar for his habit of waging war covered only with his weapons. While the notion that they dyed their skins with or used Woad for tattooing has been debunked, the fact that they did utilize Woad for dying their clothing and hair, and that they were extensively tattooed using an iron compound (which results in a bluish hue) has been confirmed for all related tribes.
Once a study limited to Kings, Mormons, and the elderly, genealogy is now a burgeoning industry spurred on my the average human being’s need for social connection and a place of their own in a world bursting with fellow humans.
While it is indisputable that we all emerged from the same gene pool and are related in some degree, the families, clans, and tribal affiliations to which we belong are what give us both our individual identity and yet tie us into the common humanity. Understanding this is what enables us to make sense of both historical and current events.
Knowing as an individual that you are connected to everyone else is really not enough, it is simply too abstract a concept to grasp… too easy to transcend… to easy to miss the mark and view others in an objectified way based on limited views informed by too may other systems (religious, political) to recognize the common humanity in another. Identifying the connections is what enables us to transcend the boundaries that define us and create a solid sense of connectedness that enables us to address the real issues that challenge our common humanity.
More than ever people are reaching out and making use of tools and services that enable them to discover their unique place in the larger picture. And who some of these people are would surprise you. Historians, Anthropologists, Political Scientists and 7th grade schoolgirls. New questions emerge in the debate what does it mean to be an American, an Immigrant, Black, Hispanic, Native American.
The past two years in American media has been a real eye opener new discoveries regarding the origins and place of the family of US President, Barack Obama, have emerged. And much of this is due to the efforts of BridgeAnn d’Avignon, a single 7th Grade school girl who has made a difference in American politics by discovering that President Barack Obama is related to every other US President except Martin Van Buren.
Learn more about this amazing Irish-American lineage and its connections to the Luo tribe of Kenya and its place in the common heritage of US Presidents.
The architectural history of Los Angeles is a study in contrasts and a lesson in the dynamics of social and nationalistic polarity. To truly understand and appreciate the scope of the architectural history of Los Angeles it is important to lay a basic foundation or time-line within which the various stylistic interpretations were expressed. And explain some of the social and economic triggers that spurred population growth and construction cycles in the area.
In 1781 Los Angeles started out as a small Spanish Colonial settlement on the banks of the El Río de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles de Porciúncula (Los Angeles River). At that time the emphasis was on swift and functional construction rather than on architecture designed to express the glory of God or the grandeur of the Empire. The pueblo erected by Conquistador Felipe de Neve was simple adobe without ostentatious ornamental display. Faced with the vagaries of colonial living and rebuilding as a consequence of the constant battle with the local river (which flooded annually). The architecture remained utilitarian in design and simple in expression through the first two decades of the 1800′s.
Within the first two decades of the 1800′s, three architecturally significant cathedrals (La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles, Mission San Fernando Rey de España, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel) were erected in the Spanish Neoclassical Minimalist style.
By 1850 the Spanish influence on architecture of the Los Angeles area was on the wane due to the successive waves of migrating Yankees and Jews eager to find work in the area’s emerging oil and mining industries began to flood the Los Angeles River basin. This migration was fueled by extended labor disputes in the union labor towns of Northern California (San Francisco, Oakland etc.) in the latter decades of the 1800′s. When these displaced and dissatisfied workers fled these towns, they brought with them their open labor shops and set up an industrial base in the L.A. area.
As these immigrants set up homes in the area the architecture of Main Street Los Angeles became nearly indistinguishable from the Main Street of any similar sized city in the Midwest. Adobe was replaced by fired brick and woodframe construction as the preferred medium of construction. Eastern styles such as Mansard, Victorian, Queen Anne, Eastlake, Anglo-Colonial Revival, and Beau-arts predominated. Henry Hobson Richardson introduced the concept of the classical column in urban architecture, where the first two floors of city high rise buildings provided a strong formed base for the uniformly modeled floors above topped with a capital comprised of an lavishly decorated top floor that gave architectural definition to the entire building.
Despite the flood of immigrants and construction boom, and because of the availability of arable land surrounding the city, Los Angeles itself remained small until 1900. It was not until after 1900, that Los Angeles experienced its fastest period of growth when the advent of the automobile age enabled Americans from all over, attracted to the mild Mediterranean climate, cheap land, and a wide variety of geography, to migrated over what was now a relatively short drive by truck. Old buildings were razed to make way for newer bigger buildings to accommodate the burgeoning population, and need for public space.
The turn of the century saw the establishment of several organizations founded by persons who were alarmed by the rate of destruction of historical Spanish Mission style buildings. in 1894 the California Landmarks Club was founded to preserve and restore California’s Mission churches. This organization did much to influence the incorporation of Mission Style elements into buildings other than the religious edifice. Tile roofs, gables, arches, dome, quatrefoil windows and other restoration elements soon found their way into commercial and public buildings and private residences. Contemporary to and often hand in hand with this move to incorporate Mission Style elements was the spread of the Contemporaneous with the spread of Mission Revival and its return to a simpler past was the development of the Arts and Crafts movement (among the middle to upper income homeowners) and its less affluent sister the California Bungalow.
Following WWI, impetus was given to revivalist efforts as a new conservatism manifested among the citizenry. Revivalist styles took on a new flamboyant extravagance. In 1915 Bertram Goodhue and his group of fellow architects introduced the Spanish Plateresque and Churrigueresque forms of Mission architecture for use in public and religious buildings that had to this point not been seen outside of Mexico. While the International style, so popular in Europe following WWI, was rejected in favor of Stylized Modernism as inspired by the designs of Frank Lloyd Wright (who despised the European International Style).
American architects, true to the American ethos of adopting anything and everything foreign, translating it and remaking it into its own cosmopolitan image, began a movement which incorporated into its ethic, a reductionist approach to then current design trends. The European Art Nouveau was toned down to a more popular Art Deco which in turn gave way gradually during the latter half of the 20′a to the Streamline Moderne in the 1930s, and a quieter more subdued “Mediterranean” form was adopted in domestic architecture.
Entire neighborhoods took on an exotic flavor and utilized by the area’s film industry as backdrops and models for locally produced “foreign films.” In fact, the movie industry would have a large impact on the architecture of Los Angeles, eventually converting the entire city to a virtual film studio. Hollywoodland began in 1888 as a small residential development spearheaded by resident Harvey Henderson Wilcox and his wife, Daeida. It was incorporated as an independent city in 1903 but then annexed to the larger city of Los Angeles in 1910. By 1923 developers Woodruff and Shoults conceived of “Hollywoodland” as a neighborhood of “superb environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills,” and construction of Lake Hollywood Reservoir commences to provide the neighborhood with water.
In 1923 land in the Hollywood area was purchased by Hirsz, Aaron, Szmul, and Itzhak Wonskolaser (aka. Harry, Albert, Sam, and Jack Warner) for the purpose of setting up a motion picture studio, not far from the studio offices of Louis Burt Mayer then owner of Louis B. Mayer Pictures and Hollywood resident. Mayer’s business would later merge with Metro Pictures and Goldwyn Pictures Corporation in 1924 under the leadership of Marcus Loew to become MGM Studios. The name Hollywood would become synonymous with the film industry itself during the Studio Era as westerns were shot in Owens Valley, desert films were shot in Death Valley, Pirate movies were shot in Carmel, winter movies were shot in San Bernardino and movies set in the Mediterranean or the eastern U.S. were shot on location in and around the city of Los Angeles.
During the years from 1922 – 1959, R.M. Schindler and his Wright inspired group of associates who nearly single-handedly transformed Los Angeles into the center of the American Modernist Movement. The more innovative among them spearheading the unfortunately named Postmodern movement. (Rather than being a forward leaning movement, as its name would suggest, Postmodernism actually strives to create a synthesis of past and future by combining the clean modernist lines with features and details from past styles.)
Following WWII this Postmodernism, inspired by the tools and technologies of the Atomic Age, took on an increasingly fantastic expression by incorporating elements of industrial pop culture and iconic mechanical designs. Los Angeles became the birthplace of the postmodern sub-style known as “Googie” or, alternately, “Populuxe.” The first known instance of Populuxe architecture was the Googie Coffee Shop on the corner of Sunset Boulevard and Crescent Heights which while giving a nod to Streamlined Moderne, wen above and beyond in incorporating interpretive elements of the atomic age. This landmark building was later demolished in 1980′s.
Characteristics of Googie or Populuxe style are upswept cantilevered roofs, curvaceous, acute angles and geometric shapes, and bold use of glass, steel, neon illumination, plastic paneling and lines evocative of flight and motion, such as free-form boomerangs, flying saucers, atoms, cutouts, parabolas, and tail fins. Like most of the trendy pop culture based styles (such as Art Deco), most of the buildings of this era have not survived urbanization pressures and have been demolished to make way for more modernist style buildings.
The latter half of the century (from 1980′s on) saw a return to the core ethics of the Internationalist style. While the Postmodern Style still dominated the more novel or expressionist elements were toned down or eliminated in favor of a more subtle expression of the stylistic fusionism so characteristic of American Architecture. Key examples of this new direction would be St Matthew’s Episcopal Church in Pacific Palisades, the First Church of Christ, Scientist in Glendale, Frank Gehry‘s Walt Disney Concert Hall , and Rafael Moneo‘s Roman Catholic Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in the Spanish International revival style. The latter structure is unique in its external austerity while its interior maximizes space and the play of light in the earlier Gothic style.
The new millennium has been ushered in with a return to introspection on the part of the American people as a whole. We are asking ourselves questions about sustainability for the future. While it appears that most of the more imaginative architecture is still being created on L.A.’s west side, (Culver City, Santa Monica, Venice and West Hollywood). Most of the work for new architects is in the fields of interior design. While some factors such as the current poor economy, cultural consumerism, and a highly transitional population have conspired to waste precious architectural talent on empty and short-lived remodeling gigs, other factors such as population pressures and the need for historical preservation work together to move architectural consideration toward the new and relatively unexplored study of Urban Sustainability.
With the average Californian’s new introspection on the need for renewable resources, and sustainable living the architectural style in Los Angeles promises to change again in a major direction that will blends eco-sustainable urban living with more organic contemporary designs (for new buildings) and wholesale Green Conversion of the more historical buildings. We may in the future end up with a city that resembles more closely the legendary hanging gardens of Babylon than Main Street USA.
Year: Stylistic Period:Style Architect: Example:
1780 Spanish Colonial Felipe de Neve Pueblo de Los Angeles
1820 Spanish Neo-Classical Minimalist La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles, Mission San Fernando Rey de España, Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
1869 Eastern Styles:
Ezra Kysor Pio Pico House Hotel
1877 Eastern Styles:
1894 Eastern Styles: Queen Anne Wright-Mooers House
Eastern Styles: Victorian Bradbeer & Ferris
Eastern Styles: Victorian Ernest Coxhead Eastern Styles: Victorian Seymour Locke Eastern Styles: Victorian Merithew and Ferris Eastern Styles: Victorian Joseph Cather Newsome Carson Mansion
Eastern Styles: Victorian W.F. Norton Eastern Styles: Victorian A.N.W. Parkes Eastern Styles: Victorian Harry Ridgeway Stanton Building
1893 Eastern Styles: Richardson Romanesque H.H. Richardson Stimson Block, Stimson House
1901 Eastern Styles: Richardson Romanesque H.H. Richardson Holliston Avenue Methodist Church
1910 Eastern Styles:
Hudson and Munsell Museum of Natural History
1925-1933 Eastern Styles:
John C. Austin Griffith Observatory, Los Angeles City Hall, and the Shrine Auditorium.
1923-1924 Eastern Styles:
Robert Farquhar William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, The Paramour Mansion
Morgan, Walls & Clements Eastern Styles:
Walker & Eisen 1902 Mission Revival A.B. Benton Mission Inn- Riverside
Mission Revival Irving J. Gill Walter L. Dodge House
Mission Revival Sumner Hunt Southwest Museum
Mission Revival Lester S Moore Montecito View House
Mission Revival Frederick Louis Roehrig Hotel Green
Arts and Crafts Joseph J Blick Scottish Rite Temple
Arts and Crafts Irving J Gill George Marston house
Arts and Crafts Charles and Henry Greene Gamble House
Arts and Crafts Arthur S & Alfred Heineman Arts and Crafts Sylvanus Marston Arts and Crafts Ross Montgomery Arts and Crafts Frederick Louis Roehrig 1925 Mission Revival: Mediterranian George Washington Smith Baldwin House
Mission Revival: Allison & Allison Mission Revival: John Byers Mission Revival: Roland Coate Mission Revival: Elmer Grey Mission Revival: Myron Hunt Mission Revival: Reginald Johnson Mission Revival: Gordon B. Kaufmann Mission Revival: Marston, Van Pelt, & Maybury Mission Revival: Ross Montgomery Mission Revival: Wallace Neff Libby Ranch, Pickfair Estate
Mission Revival: Parkinson & Parkinson Mission Revival: Irving J. Gill Dodge House
Art Deco Arthur E. Harvey Selig Retail Store
1927 International Style Rudolph M. Schindler Kings Road House, Pueblo Ribera Court, Lovell Beach House, Wolfe House, and How House, Manola Court, Oliver House, Buck House, Rodakiewicz House, Bubeshko Apartments, Mackey Apartments, Goodwin House
1919 American Modernist Frank Lloyd Wright Hollyhock House
1929 International Style: American Modernism Richard Neutra Lovell Apartments
1865 International Style: American Modernism Craig Ellwood Kubly House
1949 International Style: Expressionist John Lautner l'Horizon Apartments
1963 International Style: Expressionist Edward D. Stone Beckman Auditorium
1985 Postmodern Frank O. Gehry Chiat-Day-Mojo Building
1984 Postmodern Richard Meier J. Paul Getty Center for the Arts
Postmodern Mark Mack Mack House
1982 Postmodern Charles W. Moore St. Matthew's Episcopal Church
1947 International Gregory Ain Mar Vista Tract Housing
International Charles & Ray Eames 1976 International Craig Ellwood Art Center College of Design (Hillside Campus)
International Harwell H. Harris International A. Quincy Jones Sunnylands (Annenberg Estate)
International Raymond Kappe The Benton House
1959 International Pierre Koenig The Stahl House
International Lotery/Boccato International Richard Meier International Richard Neutra International R.M. Schindler 1936 International Raphael Soriano Lipitz House
International Smith & Williams Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Belzberg Architects Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Rebecca Binder Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Cavaedium Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Chu & Gooding Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Daly, Genik Architects Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Steven Ehrich Architects <1969 Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Wilton Becket
Capitol Records Building, Cinerama Dome, Pan-Pacific Auditorium, Los Angeles Music Center (including the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion), Pauley Pavilion, UCLA, Beverly Hilton Hotel, Parker Center
Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Frederick Fisher & Partners Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Frank O. Gehry and Associates Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Gensler Architecture 1978 Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Bruce Goff Japanese Art Pavilion at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art.
Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist David Lawrence Gray Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Melinda Gray Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Grinstein/Daniels Architects Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Hodgetts & Fung Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Glen Irani Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Franklin D. Israel Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist John Lautner Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Johnson, Favaro Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Kanner Architects Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Koenig Eizenberg Architecture 1992 Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Richardo Legoretta Pershing Square Rennovation
Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Mark Mack Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Michael Maltzan Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Marmol Radziner & Associates 1988 Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Charles Willard Moore Beverly Hills Civic Center
Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Morphosis Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Eric Owen Moss Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist I.M. Pei 1975-1988 Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Cesar Pelli Pacific Design Center, 777 Tower
Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Pugh & Scarpa Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Michael Rotondi Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Hak Sik Son Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Syndesis (David Hertz) Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Venturi, Scott-Brown & Associates Postmodern: Neo-Expressionist Mehrdad Yasdani 1989 Beau-Arts Lawrence Halprin Bunker Hill Steps
A READER WRITES -
I noticed that in the Rodovid Genealogy Tree Aud Gamle is entered as “Aud Jorundsson (Gamle , Инглинги) d. 495.” The Russian name after Gamle, is pronounced “Eengleenree.” Kind of sounds like Angle, as in the tribe that settled in England and gave it its name?
SECRET HISTORY X REPLY -
Aud was an Yngling. Which is used to designate descent from Yngve, and which means literally “Yngve’s offspring. “ The tribal affiliation of Yngve and his offspring was originally an invading Swyddian (Pronounced Swithian) tribe that was related to the Indo-Iranian people of the Carpathian and Black Sea region (Scythian/Dacio-Sarmation Getae). Their tribal name gave rise to the modern name Sweden “Sverige” as they began to dominate over the neighboring tribes. Newest evidence is indicating a same area of origin for the Angles that settled in southern England during a later colonial period. The Angles early on has status as “Foederati” or military confederates of the early Roman Republic. Many of these relocated to and remained in North West Europe when the Republic fell in 450 AD.
This is a response to your request for information with regard to relationship between the Bulkeley Family and the Avery and Prescott family. It seems both families in question share a common bond to the island of Roatan in the person of Charles “Kyle” Bulkeley, an early 18th century pirate captain and buccaneer.
In 1723/1724 an approximately 20-year-old-man from New England, Philip Ashton, managed to survive as a castaway on the island for sixteen months until he was finally rescued. During that time they were governed by King Bull Kyle, a red-haired white man, unusual for the location considering it is an island of hispanics.
But who was King Bull Kyle? Researching further I discovered in Ashton’s memoirs additional mention of this mysterious king including his full name. Bull Kyle was the name given to him by the natives, however in discourse with Ashton, he revealed his name as Edward Chauncy Bulkekey. A marooned privateer sailor gone native.
His middle name gave me a clue which led to the unfolding of this man’s origins although much of his personal story remains a mystery. We do not know the full tale of how he ended up the Pirate King on a tropical island off the coast of Honduras. His father was Captain Peter Bulkeley (son of Rev Gershom Bulkeley and Sarah Chauncey) and his mother was Dorothy Hoare Prescott. Dorothy Prescott was the daughter of Captain Jonathan Prescott by his second wife Elizabeth Hoare (daughter of John Hoare and granddaughter of Charles Hoare the Sheriff of Gloucester England).
That King Kyle kept his family (including his good reverend Grandfather) well supplied is evident by the will left by Rev Gershom wherein he bequeaths to his daughter in law (King Kyle’s mother) a gold Guinea, and to his daughters in law Hannah Avery and Rachel Wolcott, each a golden ducat. To King Kyle’s uncle the Reverend Gershom bequeathed his grandfather clock (a rumored treasure cache), his seal, his gilt spoon, and silver porrigers, and all his legal books and additional tools for the timber mills  which supplied his son’s shipbuilding business.
It is interesting to note that in his journal, Revered Bulkeley mentions in passing the delivery of the clock stating that it was so heavy that one of the men who bore it broke a collar bone.
 See Edward E. Leslie, “Desperate Journeys, Abandoned Souls”, 1988, pp.100–120
 See Charles S. Hall, “A SERIES OF SKETCHES OF THE LINEAL ANCESTORS OF THE CHILDREN OF SAMUEL HOLDEN PARSONS HALL AND HIS WIFE EMELINE BULKELEY OF BINGHAMTON NY …”, GP PUTNAM’S SONS 1896: p
 ANSON S Voyage. Bulkeley and Cummins Voyage to the South Seas, and Narrative of the loss of the ship ” Wager.” 8vo. 1743
 Roatan was also named “Isle del esPina” (Island of Pines)
 Hannah Avery’s maiden name was Raymond. She was married to Charles the son of Reverend Bulkeley. Her husband died whilst she was pregnant with Charles’ child (a daughter whom she named Hannah, who was born in India). She remarried quickly to Captain Thomas Avery the son of Captain James Avery.
 Proceedings, American Philosophical Society (vol. 131, No. 4, 1987)
In researching the family connections of the men who sailed aboard the Amity with Thomas Tew in 1692, I stumbled upon the following will and testament illustrating the relationship between Thomas Lewis and Barent Rynder (both men aboard the Amity).
“In the name of God, Amen. I, Thomas Lewis, of New York, merchant, being in good health, but now bound out on a voyage, and knowing that the time is uncertain when it will please God to take me out of this vile and transitory world.” And to the end that no variances might hereafter arise do make this my last will and testament. I give to my son, Thomas Lewis, €5, when he is 21, over and above all other legacies. The rest of my estate I leave to my wife, Frances Lewis, during widowhood, with full power to sell houses and lands with the advice and consent of my brothers, Leonard Lewis and Barent Rynders. If my wife should marry, then she is to have and enjoy the household stuff and wearing apparell, jewels, rings, diamonds, etc., and one half of my estate in houses and lands. When she remarries, the estate is to be divided, and the share of my children is to be put into the hands of my brothers, Leonard Lewis and Barent Rynders, who I name as executors.
Dated January 10, 1699/1700.
 This will was written prior to Thomas’ second voyage with Tew. The cache of treasure (apparel, jewels, rings, diamonds) from his first voyage is mentioned in his will to be given to his wife if she be widowed, and divided evenly if she remarries.
This king, whose name is rendered in a variety of ways, is credited by ancient historians with a lifespan of 120 years. According to Herodotus, King Arganthonios ruled Tartessia for 80 years, from 630 BC to 550 BC. It is probable that he is thus credited with this longevity due to a the fact that is name is a title rather than a proper name, and the historians inadvertently credited one man with the works of several generations of kings.
What is certain is that the Biblical kingdom of Tartessos was ruled by this proto-Iranian/Gaelic King from a capital city located beyond the Straits of Gibraltar on the southwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula. The prophet Jonah attempted to flee from God’s command by escaping in the hold of a ship that was bound for the capital city of Tartessos (as far away from Nineveh as he could get). After an agonizing journey in the rough waters of the Mediterranean, he was discovered as a stowaway (no doubt while he was barfing from seasickness) and put off on shore.
This King of Kings held mining concerns in Spain, Cornwall, and Wales, with vast trade networks that spanned the Globe. (No small feat for kings in the millenia before the common era). The precious metals and coinage that were exported from his kingdom eventually brought about the collapse of the Persian monetary system. The bible and other ancient histories tell of rich fabrics, leather, peacocks, ivory and exotic foods and spices that were provided to the ancient world via the “Ships of Tartessos“.
This Gaelic king ruled a highly literate population, spoke a language that seems to be some sort of hybrid of the several major languages in extant at the time. I am willing to bet that the tradesmen of this Kingdom/Empire of Tartessos, based as it was on maritime trade, originated of many of the earliest maps that showed not only the coast lines of other continents (including Africa, and north/south America), but showing them with such incredible detail and accuracy that during the middle ages many of them were gathered and burned along with the gnostic scriptures and other historical documents as part of an orchestrated effort of modern Rome to conquer and subdue the peoples of Languedoc and Iberia.
The jewelry depicted in the portrait of Argenteus, by artist Georgeos Díaz-Montexano , actually exists. The rest of the portrait is conjecture based upon the archeological evidence of local custom with regards to style and ethnic connections.
More on the history, culture, kings, capital cities, and records of antiquity with regard to the kingdom of Tartessos including its ties to anti-diluvean Atlantean kingdom of Dilmun and the Tainite Confederation has been authored by Mr Montexano. His research is thorough, factual and based on empirical evidence rather than the radical emotionalism and religious fervor that traditionally accompany other assertions and theories regarding the location of the elusive “Island of Atlantis.”